Dr. Shakil Mohammad Rifaatis currently working as anAssociate Professor in the Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering of Islamic University of Technology (IUT), Dhaka, Bangladesh. He completed Ph.D. from University of Calgary (U of C) and M.Sc. from National University of Singapore.Before joining IUT, he worked as a research assistant in the Department of Civil Engineering at the National University of Singapore (NUS) and the University of Calgary (U of C) as well as a full-time Lecturer, an Assistant and an Associate Professor in the Department of Civil Engineering at the University of Asia Pacific (UAP) and Islamic University of Technology (IUT) in Bangladesh.
1. Effectiveness of Driving License in Bangladesh from Road Safety Perspective.
The procedure of obtaining driving license in Bangladesh is often questionable because of its authenticity. However, its effects on traffic safety have not been explored extensively in the past. A questionnaire survey was prepared for heavy vehicle drivers i.e., bus drivers and truck drivers. The drivers were classified as all test takers, partially test takers and no test takers. After analyzing ANOVA (Analysis of Variance), it was explored whether there were any differences among different test takers on risk perception. The study also explored whether there was any relationship between testing procedures and involvement in road crashes.
2. Study on the Effect of Road Infrastructure, Socio-economic and Demographic Features on Road Crashes in Bangladesh.
The objective of the study was to explore the relationship between road infrastructure, socioeconomic and demographic features of a district and road accidents. Road infrastructure features such as length of different functional classes of road (i.e., length of National Highways, Regional Roads, Local roads in a district, length of paved and unpaved roads etc.), socioeconomic and demographic features (i.e., district wise total population, gender, education, income etc.) were used in this study to develop statistical model. Multiple linear model was used to correlate between these factors and road crashes. The outcome of the model identified the factors which increase or decrease district wise road crashes.
3. Factors Affecting Mode Choice: A Case Study in Dhaka.
In the past, most of the studies on mode choice were based on the effect of travel time or travel cost. Recently some projects related to transportation infrastructure development such as flyover, metro rail etc. are going on and to be built in future. For this reason a study was imperative to establish a relationship among people's socioeconomic, demographic and travel pattern characteristics with mode choice. The aim of the study was to examine the effect of socioeconomic, demographic and travel pattern in choosing different modes such as car, bus, walking, CNG, motorcycle etc using multinomial logit model.
4. An Exploratory Study on Ready Made Garment Workers’ Road Safety Risk Perception.
Bangladesh is heavily dependent on its Ready Made Garment (RMG) industry which is the biggest source of foreign currency, mass employment and socio-economic development. Since the majority of the garments workers choose walking as their main mode of transport, including commute to and from work, they generate a serious economic and social issue because pedestrian traffic injuries are a major health and safety problem around the world, especially in developing countries. Therefore, this study aims to explore RMG workers' traffic safety perception, particularly from a pedestrian's perspective. A questionnaire survey was administered to 1000 workers and the data collected was explored using a linear regression model. Our results showed that risk perception varied significantly with the worker’s age, income group, marital status, number of children, mode of transport, average weekly walking time, educational qualification, previous accident related experience, etc. This study will help policy makers and transportation engineers to identify the most at-risk RMG groups to target any pedestrian safety improvement programs.
5. Study on the Effect of Road Infrastructure, Socio-economic and Demographic Features on Road Crashes in Bangladesh
The objectives of thestudy is to examine the effect of district wise road infrastructure, socioeconomic and demographic features on crash occurrence .Theunit of analysis will be taken as individual district which has not been explored much in the past. Reported crash data obtained from Bangladesh Road Transport Authority (BRTA) from the year 2004 to 2010 are utilized to develop negative binomial model. The model result will reveal the effect of road length (both paved and unpaved), road infrastructure and several socio economic characteristics on district level crash frequency in Bangladesh.
6. Optimizing Signal Timing: An Efficient Way to Handle Traffic Congestion in Developing Countries
To optimize the signal timing for reducing delay has been taken as the main objective of this study. An intersection in Dhaka city (the capital of Bangladesh) has been chosen to achieve the goal of this study. This study will suggest that the new timing of the signal reduces total delay for all movements than the existing one. Particularly it will reduce delay significantly for certain movements during peak hours. The result of the study will clearly justify the improvement of the junction performance by reducing delay in new signal timing.
7. Effective Implementation of Variable Message Sign(VMS) in Dhaka City
Variable Message Signs, a way of informing drivers about road conditions and a potential safety measures has already got popularity in different countries like U.S.A, UK, Canada, Japan, Germany, Malaysia, Sweden and other developed countries of the world. Extensive research regarding VMS has been carried out all over the world. Few VMS have been also noticed across the road of Dhaka city with faulty way of installation, erroneous message, poor management and less capability to attract drivers. It is observed that no research activities regarding VMS have been carried out during or after installation of VMS in Dhaka city. The objective of the research project is to implement VMS effectively by finding out the difference in perception among different survey groups (drivers, pedestrians, highway professionals). The project also explored reasons for different perception and finally recommendations based on findings are suggestedfor effective implementation of VMS in Dhaka city.
8. A Study on the Relationship between Driver’s Characteristics and Information Displayed in Variable Message Sign(VMS)
The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between driver’s characteristics and information displayed in variable message sign (VMS). The study was done in Dhaka city, the capital of Bangladesh. A questionnaire survey was conducted to find out relationship between drivers’ different characteristics and their choice of different message type. Using Multinomial Logit Model the survey data was analyzed. From the study it is observed that, different types of characteristics of the drivers like personal characteristics, driving and accident experience has significant effect on their choice of message. The study will help the policy makers to implement VMS effectively and to ensure the optimum use of VMS.
9. Comparative Speed Study in Dhaka City: A Case Study Analysis
Several studies justify thatspeed is one of the key factors for occurring road accidents. This paper investigates the speed scenario of a particular roadway section named Mirpur Road as a pilot project. The speed data for various types of vehicles that use the particular roadway were taken for this study. To get a complete speed scenario of this road section data were taken on both weekdays and weekends in four different time periods that include morning peak (8.00a.m-9.00a.m), off-peak (11.00a.m-12.00p.m), evening peak (6.00p.m-7.00p.m) and night time (9.00p.m-10.00p.m). Unpaired T- test analysis was performed considering 90% confidence interval for both equal and unequal variances. It is found that vehicle speed varies in the morning-peak in weekdays and in the evening-peak in the weekends comparing with this of other time periods. Car, bus and truck were found statistically significant in case of speed assessment while comparing those in different days and significant speed differential was also observed among them. Some measures suggested to improve safety scenarios are widening road width, deploying traffic police in particular time periods, build speed bump, provide adequate streetlight, installing speed limit sign etc.
10. Effects of Neighborhood Characteristics on Sustainable Transportation Modes
Traffic demand is increasing with the booming economic growth all over the world and severe carbon emission from the transportation sector is highly contributing to the climate change. Climate change and greenhouse gas emission is one of the major issues now a day. Therefore, at this very moment it is mandatory to reduce the emission from the transportation sector as it produces 14% of the global greenhouse gas emissions. To reduce the emission and continue economic growth sustainable and efficient transport system is indispensable. Sustainable urban transport involves firming many features such as efficiency, safety, security, convenience, low carbon, comfort and environment-friendliness etc. The characteristics of sustainable transportation are seen in several modes of transportation, which are public transit, walking and bicycling. The objective of this study is to identify the effect of different neighborhood characteristics, for example socioeconomic, road infrastructure, demographic and street pattern on sustainable transportation modes in a community area using the 2011 census data and the road infrastructure data of Calgary city.
11. Case Study on Vulnerable Pedestrian: Garment Workers’ Road Safety Education Source
The objective of this study is to observe the percentage of refined pedestrian and to pinpoint the sources that may affect the vulnerable road user’s behaviors to become safety concern. As the economy of Bangladesh is extensively hooked on the Ready Made Garments (RMG) industry and the mode of transport of these substantial percentage of user is walking, that’s why for this research garment workers are nominated as vulnerable pedestrian. Numerous studies support that this domineering communal has toppled under intense extortion of road accident. To serve the purpose of this research near about 1000 samples have been collected from 8 different renowned garment industries which are previously identified as most prominent road accident zones. This study demonstrates through logistic regression model to analyze and detect the edification source of this convinced civic of the society through noteworthy exploration in perception depending on innumerable aspect, which is going to be promoted as the development of safety educational view among the vulnerable pedestrian. This study enhances the policy makers to corroborate this affected society and take the plunge to increase pedestrian safety awareness in an incredible percentage through schooling etc.
12. Reassessing Road Sign Test of Drivers in Bangladesh
Driver’s fault is one of the main reasons responsible for the road crashes. If the drivers are properly trained, if they follow the road signs and traffic laws accordingly and if they are responsible enough while driving, road crashes and injuries can be minimized significantly and this will help to improve road safety scenarios. This study helps to identify those groups of driver who are not physically fit enough to drive, who have not trained properly, who are not capable of recalling necessary road signs and traffic laws after some years of their driving. This study reveals those groups of driver through a road sign test. Drivers who score poorly in comparison with other drivers are the targeted groups of driver. A questionnaire survey was conducted among bus drivers, car drivers and truck drivers and a total of 300 samples were collected. Using the software ‘STATA’ a linear regression model analysis was applied to analyze the data. Result showed that drivers test score varied significantly with their age, education level, frequency of driving, experiences, effects of drug and alcohol etc. From the model result, the drivers who need further training can be identified easily.
13. Development of District wise Crash Prediction Model in Bangladesh
Bangladesh is an accident prone country. Every year a considerable number of road crashes occur in this country and these are categorized as fatal injury crash, grievous injury crash, simple injury crash and collision or no injury or property damage crash. Different independent factors are directly and indirectly associated with these crash occurrences. Thus, a crash prediction model is necessary to explore the adverse effects of various structural and non-structural elements that are linked with transportation systems on individual crashes in context of Bangladesh. Considering all districts of Bangladesh the effects of socio economic and demographic factors and weather conditions (rainfall, fog and temperature) have been explored on different crash occurrences. In addition, effect of detailed road infrastructure on crashes is rigorously explored in this study.
14. Designing Urban Neighborhood to Encourage Walking
Traffic demand is growing worldwide and the increased carbon emission from transport and travel activities is contributing to greenhouse gas emission and climate change. As the oil and gas capital of Canada, the City of Calgary has a very high carbon footprint per population and the reduction of automobile use is an important policy goal for the city. The study identifies the effects of different neighborhood design and planning factors associated with the share of walking in work trips, while controlling for differences in social economic characteristics of the neighborhood. Using community level data from the 2011 census and the road infrastructure data of Calgary, our study finds that different street patterns and types of land use, length of train tracks, number of train stations and number of schools have significant effect on walking and thus should be considered in the development of new communities for promoting active and sustainable transportation.
1. Pasha, M. M., Rifaat, S. M., Tay, R., DeBarros, A.(2016). Effects of Street Pattern, Traffic, Road Infrastructure, Socioeconomic and Demographic Characteristics on Public Transit Ridership. KSCE Journal of Civil Engineering, Vol. 20(3), pp. 1017- 1022. (ISI and SCOPUS Indexed, Impact Factor = 0.60)
2. Pasha, M., Rifaat, S. M., Tay, R., De Barros, A. (2016). Pasha, M., Rifaat, S. M., Tay, R., De Barros, A. (2016). Urban design and planning influences on the share of trips taken by cycling .Jurnal of Urban Design, Vol . 21, No . 4, pp. 471–480. (SCOPUS Indexed)
3. Pasha, M. M. ,Rifaat, S. M., Hasnat, A., Rahman, I. (2015). Pedestrian’s Behaviour on Road Crossing Facilities. JurnalTeknologi, Vol. 73(4), pp. 77- 83. (SCOPUS Indexed)
4. Rifaat, S. M., Pasha, M. M., Shovon, M. H., Nafis, S. R., Limon, M. K. H. (2015). Comparative Speed Study: A Way to Improve Road Safety Condition. Journal of Engineering and Technology, Vol. 12(1), pp. 41- 50.(Peer Reviewed)
5. Rifaat, S. M., Rahman, M. H., Mohammed, Pasha, M.(2014). Study on the Effect of Road Infrastructure, Socio-Economic and Demographic Features on Road Crashes in Bangladesh". World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology, International Science Index 88, International Journal of Social, Management, Economics and Business Engineering , 8(4), 1159 - 1164.(Peer Reviewed)
6. Wahi, R. R., Rifaat, S. M., Ahsan, N. U., Leema, F. (2013). A Study on the Effect of Licensing System upon Driver’s Attitude in Bangladesh. Brunei Darussalam Journal of Technology and Commerce. Vol. 7(1), pp. 43- 57.(Peer Reviewed)
7. Rifaat, S. M., Tay, R. and DeBarros, A. (2012). Urban Street Pattern and Pedestrian Traffic Safety, Journal of Urban Design, 17(3), pp. 337-352. (SCOPUS Indexed)
8.Rifaat, S. M., Tay, R. and DeBarros, A. (2012). Severity of Motorcycle Crashes in Calgary. Accident Analysis and Prevention, Vol. 49, pp. 44- 49.(ISI and SCOPUS Indexed, Impact Factor= 2.702)
9. Rifaat, S. M., Tay, R., DeBarros, A. (2011). Logistic Model of Injury Risks in Single Vehicle Crashes in Urban Neighborhoods. Journal of Advanced Transportation, Vol. 45(3), pp. 186-195.(ISI and SCOPUS Indexed, Impact Factor= 1.292)
10.Rifaat, S. M., Tay, R., DeBarros, A. (2011).Effect of Street Pattern on the Severity of Crashes Involving Vulnerable Road Users. Accident Analysis and Prevention, Vol.43, pp. 276- 283.(ISI and SCOPUS Indexed, Impact Factor= 2.702)
11. Rifaat, S. M., Tay, R., DeBarros, A. (2010).Effect of Street Pattern on Road Safety: Are Policy Recommendations Sensitive to Different Aggregations of Crashes by Severity? In Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board, No. 2147, Transportation Research Board of the National Academies, Washington, D. C. pp. 58- 65.(ISI and SCOPUS Indexed, Impact Factor= 0.544)
12. Rifaat, S.M., Tay, R (2009). Effect of Street Pattern on Injury Risks in Two-Vehicle Crashes. In Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board, No. 2102, Transportation Research Board of the National Academies, Washington, D. C., pp. 61- 67.(ISI and SCOPUS Indexed, Impact Factor= 0.544)
13. Rifaat, S. M., Tay, R., Perez, A., De Barros, A. (2009). Effects of Neighborhood Street Patterns on Traffic Collision Frequency. Journal of Transportation Safety and Security, Vol. 1, Issue 4, pp. 241- 253.(SCOPUS Indexed)
14. Tay, R., Rifaat, S.M., Chin, H.C. (2008). A Logistic Model of the Effects of Roadway, Environmental, Vehicle, Crash and Driver Characteristics on Hit-and-Run Crashes. Accident Analysis and Prevention, Vol. 40, Issue 4, pp.1330-1336. (ISI and SCOPUS Indexed, Impact Factor= 2.702)
15. Tay,R., Rifaat, S.M. (2007). Factors Contributing to the Severity of Intersection Crashes. Journal of Advanced Transportation, Vol. 41, No.3, pp.245-265. (ISI and SCOPUS Indexed, Impact Factor= 1.292)
16. Rifaat, S.M., Chin, H.C. (2007). Accident Severity Analysis Using Ordered Probit Model. Journal of Advanced Transportation, Vol. 41, No.1, pp. 91-114. (ISI and SCOPUS Indexed, Impact Factor= 1.292)
1. Rifaat, S. M., Labib, M., Mustakim, R., Monwar, M., Tay, R.(2015). Vehicle- Pedestrian Crashes at Intersections in Dhaka City. Proceedings of the Conference of ASEAN Road Safety 2015 (CARS2015), Kuala Lumpur: Malaysian Institute of Road Safety Research. pp. 274- 280.
2. Bhuiyan, M. A. A., Khan, I. R., Khan, M. R. M., Rifaat, S. M. (2014). Optimizing Signal Timing : An Efficient Way to Handle Traffic Congestion in Developing Countries. Paper Published in the Proceedings of 5th Brunei International Conference on Engineering and Technology, Institut Teknologi Brunei, Brunei, November 1- 3, Paper ID_12.
3. Rahman, M. H., Mohammed, Rifaat, S. M., Pasha, M(2013)..A Study on the effect of road infrastructure, socio-economic and demographic features on road crashes in Bangladesh. Paper published in the Proceedings of 8th CUTSE International Conference on Sience, Sustainability and Solutions, 3-4 December, 2013, Curtin University Sarawak, Malaysia , page 87- 96.
4. Pasha, M., Hasanat, A., Rahman, I., Rifaat, S. M.(2013) A Study on Pedestrians’ Behavior of Using Road Crossing Facilities in Dhaka City. Joint conference of The 9th International Conference on Geo-technical & Transportation Engineering (GEOTROPIKA) and The 1st International Conference on Construction and Building Engineering (ICONBUILD), Johor Bahru, Malaysia, 28th – 30th October 2013, Paper ID_181.
5. Hasib, A.A, Zaman, M.S., Arin, M. I., Rifaat, S. M. and Al-Amin, M.(2012). A study on the students' perception of pedestrian risk. Published in the proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Environmental Technology and Construction Engineering for Sustainable Development, March 10-12, Sylhet, Bangladesh.pp. 513- 516.
6. Rifaat, S. M., Tay, R. and DeBarros, A. (2011). Effect of land use, road infrastructure, socioeconomic and demographic characteristics on public transit usage. Published in the Proceedings of the 16th International Conference organized by Hong Kong Society for Transportation Studies(HKSTS) from 17 to 20 December, 2011 in Hong Kong , pp. 625- 630.
7. Rifaat, S.M. (2011). Effect of Street Pattern on the Severity of Younger Driver Involved Crashes: Are Policy Decisions Sensitive to Different Modeling Methodology? Published in the Proceedings of the First Forum on Traffic Safety: The Reality, Experiences and Hope, International Conference organized by University of Dammam, KSA in collaboration with Saudi Traffic Safety Society, Saudi Aramco and the Road Safety Committee in the Eastern Region on 12-13 December, Dammam, KSA. pp. 36- 50.
8. Rifaat, S. M., Tay, R., De Barros, A.(2010). Effect of Street Pattern on the Severity of Older Driver Involved Crashes: Are Policy Decisions Sensitive to Different Modeling Methodology?Paper accepted for Presentation and Publication in the 15th HKSTS International Conference, 11-14 December, 2010, Hong Kong. pp. 81-88.
9. Rifaat, S. M., Tay, R., De Barros, A.(2010). Effect of Neighbourhood Street Pattern on Motorcycle Crash Severity at Calgary. Proceedings of the 45th Annual Conference of Canadian Transportation Research Forum, Toronto, Ontario, May 30- June 2, pp. 623- 637.
10. Rifaat, S. M., Tay, R. (2009). Effect of Street Pattern on Single Vehicle Crash Severity. Proceedings of the 44th Annual Conference of Canadian Transportation Research Forum, Victoria, British Columbia, May 24- 27, pp. 180- 193.
11. Rifaat, S.M., Tay, R. (2008). Grid or Limited Access Roads: Effects of Street Pattern on Road Crashes. Proceedings of 43nd Annual Conference of Canadian Transportation Research Forum, Fredericton, NB, June 1-4, pp. 404-417.
12. Rifaat, S.M.,Tay, R. (2008). Effects of Road, Land use, Socio-economic and Demographic Characteristics on Community Road Crashes. Proceedings of Canadian Institute of Transportation Engineers Conference, Victoria, BC, April 27-30.
13. Rifaat, S.M., Tay, R., Chin, H.C. (2007). Severity of Two-Vehicle Crashes in Singapore. Proceedings of 42nd Annual Conference of Canadian Transportation Research Forum, Winnipeg, Manitoba, June 3-6, pp. 277-290.
14. Rifaat, S.M., Chin, H.C. (2005). Analysis of Severity of Single-Vehicle Crashes in Singapore. Proceedings of the 84th Annual Meeting of Transportation Research Board, Washington, D.C., USA, January 9-13. Paper No. 05-1580.
15. Rifaat, S.M., Chin, H.C. (2004). Analysis of Severity of Pedestrian Crashes in Singapore. Proceedings of the International Conference on Transportation Systems, Planning and Operation, Indian Institute of Technology, Madras, February 18-20 February, pp.789-798.
Rifaat, S. M., 2012. Street Pattern and Traffic Safety. LAP LAMBERT Academic Publishing GmbH & Co. KG, Germany.